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A laser-guided tunnel boring machine (TBM) is an advanced piece of equipment used in the construction of tunnels. It utilizes laser technology for precise alignment and navigation underground. Here's a brief overview of how it works: Laser guidance system: The TBM is equipped with laser sensors that emit beams to measure distances, angles, and deviations. These lasers create a 3D map of the tunnel alignment, allowing for accurate excavation according to the predetermined path. Steering control: Based on the data collected by the laser sensors, the TBM's steering system adjusts the cutting head's position and direction in real-time. This ensures that the tunnel is excavated precisely according to the design specifications. Cutting and excavation: The cutting head of the TBM is equipped with various cutting tools, such as disc cutters or rotary cutterheads, depending on the geological conditions. As the TBM moves forward, it excavates the tunnel by breaking through the soil or rock formations along its path. Material removal: As the TBM progresses, the excavated material, known as spoil, is transported out of the tunnel through a conveyor system or by using muck cars. This process ensures that the tunnel remains clear for continued excavation. Overall, the laser-guided TBM combines precision engineering with advanced technology to efficiently and accurately construct tunnels for various infrastructure projects, such as transportation tunnels, water supply tunnels, or sewage tunnels.