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Microtunneling machines, also known as microtunnel boring machines (MTBMs), are specialized equipment used for the construction of small diameter tunnels with high precision. These machines are typically used in urban areas or areas with limited space where traditional tunneling methods may not be feasible. Microtunneling machines consist of a cutterhead at the front, which excavates the soil, and a trailing support system that facilitates the installation of the tunnel lining. They operate using a combination of hydraulic power and thrust jacks to push the machine forward while simultaneously excavating the soil. One of the key features of microtunneling machines is their ability to accurately steer the tunnel along a predetermined path. This is achieved through the use of guidance systems such as laser or gyroscopic navigation systems, which ensure that the tunnel remains on track and avoids any obstacles or utilities underground.